Is there design in nature?

The argument from design

The argument from contrivance

William Paley published a book in 1802, entitled Natural Theology: or evidences of the existence and attributes of the Deity. Paley made the claim that nature is full of features that show evidence of design. He called them “contrivances,” and compared them to man-made devices or machines. Paley’s argument can be phrased in terms something like this:

The existence in living organisms of features that function like mechanical devices to achieve some purpose are evidence they were created by a Designer.

Paley was not the first to claim to see in nature evidences for God’s existence. The scriptures affirm that God can be seen in nature. One of my personal favorites along this line is Psalm 8:1 —

“O Lord our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the Earth.”

Paul probably makes the strongest statement in Romans 1:19,20, where he claims that the evidence of God in nature is so clear that no one has an excuse for denying His existence and sovereignty.

Charles Darwin and the problem of design

Charles Darwin is generally credited with destroying Paley’s argument. However, Darwin was unwilling to blame God for all the evil in nature. He stated that he could not believe in a God that made cats to play with mice, or that designed tiny wasps to eat out the insides of a caterpillar. Darwin explained the evil in nature by postulating that God was so far removed from nature that He did not intervene and was not responsible for the state of nature. Instead, nature operated according to its own inherent principles. Those individuals that had some advantage simply out-competed those that lacked the advantage. This process is called natural selection. Successive generations of competition gradually resulted in organisms with greater complexity and increasing ability to compete. Thus there is no need to suppose that God actually designed the tiniest details of living creatures. Darwin would rather have God good but in the distance than close to us and evil. Most of us would probably agree. But was Darwin’s argument valid?

Darwin himself identified an argument by which his theory might be refuted. In Chapter 6 of his book, the Origin, Darwin stated:

If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.3

Darwin claimed he could find no such cases, but others have made the opposite claim. Some scientists have recently presented examples which they believe refute Darwin’s assertion.

The argument from perfection

Michael Behe of Ohio is one of the leaders in opposing Darwin’s claim of gradual development of all complex organs. He bases his argument on what he calls “irreducible complexity.” This term refers to a system that is composed of numerous interrelated parts that are so arranged that if any one of them is absent, the system falls apart and has no value whatsoever. Such a system could not be favored by natural selection as it developed gradually, because there is nothing to work with unless the entire system is in place, simultaneously. If an organ can be found that is irreducibly complex, then Darwin’s argument fails, and, according to his own words, his theory would “absolutely break down.”

Based on the concept of “irreducible complexity,” a newer form of the argument from design can be called the argument from perfection. The argument from perfection can be stated thus:

Living organisms exhibit features that have such complex interdependency of parts that an open-minded observer will recognize them as the product of an intelligent creator.

Not all features of living organisms qualify as irreducibly complex. However, it appears that many such examples do exist, especially at the molecular level. One of Dr. Behe’s favorite examples is the cilium, a tiny hair-like structure composed of many kinds of molecules. Behe identifies several kinds of molecules, each of which is required to hold the structure together for its function. (See “examples of design” below.)

What is the response of evolutionists to the claim of irreducible complexity in living organisms? I have observed two responses. One is simply to state that our inability to imagine a solution to the problem does not mean that the problem has no solution. The other is to assert that the organ can indeed be constructed in gradual steps, each of which has a function. The first argument presents no evidence in support of its conclusion; hence any weight it carries is philosophical, not scientific. The second argument must be evaluated in its own context, depending on the particular example under discussion. Some features of living organisms undoubtedly could arise in gradual steps, assuming the process was being intelligently guided. It seems highly unlikely that any organ could be created by random processes, although those with a philosophical commitment to such explanations will assert that it is possible. One result of the argument from perfection is that it shifts the burden of proof back where it belongs- with those who make the claim that all organs can arise in gradual steps. One should not be expected to believe a statement that is not supported by any evidence merely because the statement cannot be disproved.

The argument from improbability

There is another type of argument for design. Some circumstances seem so unexpected that one suspects there must be something more than chance involved. Most scientists are willing to attribute a result to chance if it could be expected to occur more often than 5 times in 100 trials. Some scientists will lower the acceptable odds to one chance in 1000 trials, depending on the nature of the event. But there are limits to what anyone will accept as the result of chance. If the probability of an event is exceedingly low, it is reasonable to suppose that it did not happen as a result of chance. If the event also seems to have a purpose, it is reasonable to suppose that the event was guided by an intelligent mind, whether good or evil.

Examples of design

A couple examples of design in nature could be described. Two examples are described below, one based on the argument from improbability and one based on the argument from irreducible complexity.

Example 1. The Earth differs from other planets in ways that permit life to exist. If any of these conditions were not present, life as we know it could not exist on Earth. For example, Earth’s atmospheric composition is unique among planets in our solar system. Carbon dioxide dominates the atmospheres of the other close planets, with little oxygen or nitrogen. The opposite condition occurs on Earth, making it possible for life to exist on Earth but not on the other planets. This is another example of an argument from improbability. The rather precise conditions of temperature range, moisture, atmospheric composition, etc., seem most reasonably explained as the result of design rather than chance, even though we do not have enough information to calculate probabilities.

Example 2. The cilium (pl. cilia) is a microscopic, hair-like structure that is part of a cell. Cilia wave back and forth rapidly, moving either themselves or the medium around them. Certain protozoa use cilia for locomotion through water, in a fashion analogous to oars on a boat. Cilia line the respiratory tracts of mammals, where their motion moves foreign particles upward toward the mouth.

A cilium consists of a bundle of microtubules held together in a special way. The microtubules are made of a molecule called tubulin. The microtubules are linked together by a stretchy molecule called nexin. Molecules of a protein called dynein extend between microtubules. One end of the dynein molecule holds fast to one microtubule while the other end walks up an adjacent microtubule. The microtubules would slide past each other, but are prevented by the nexin connections. The resulting tension causes the cilium to bend. Removal of the tubulin would destroy the cilium. Removal of the nexin would cause the cilium to fall apart. Removal of the dynein would destroy the ability to move. These three proteins form an irreducibly complex system. Intelligent design is the best explanation for such systems.

Eukaryotic_cilium_diagram - PD

In reality, a cilium contains at least two hundred different types of molecules. Some of these molecules might not be required, or could be added one at a time. It is not necessary that the irreducible complexity of the cilium extend to every type of molecule. If any part of it is irreducibly complex, it violates Darwins hypothesis, and is evidence of design.

Conclusions

The “argument from design” was widely ignored in the century after Darwin, in part because our knowledge of living systems was so incomplete that the gaps could only be filled in with imagination. As biological knowledge has increased, the argument from design has been revived and expressed in a more sophisticated way as the “argument from perfection.”

Nature truly appears to be designed. Some patterns may be produced by mechanisms that do not require any special divine intervention, but this does not remove the basis of the argument in other examples. Some features are claimed to be suboptimal, but this does not mean they are suboptimal, or that they were not designed. Neither does the argument explain the origin of the pattern. The presence of evil in nature does not mean there is no designer either. There may be both good and evil designers at work in nature.

The existence of certain features that could not survive in intermediate stages is evidence of a designer. Furthermore, it seems to me to be evidence of a supernatural Designer who created by special intervention — creation — and not through a continuous process such as evolution. I see the argument from perfection as an argument in support of an interventionist, discontinuous creation.

According to Romans, nature is clearly designed, but not all are open to recognize the Designer. Nature can be properly understood only in the light of God’s special revelation in scriptures. Guided by scriptures, we can join with the psalmist in praise to God:

“The heavens are telling the glory of God; and the firmament proclaims His handiwork. … Their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.”

Psalm 19:1,4


Jim Gibson

Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda, California

March 1, 2013

This entry was posted in Biology, Design, Molecular, Philosophical and Historical Perspectives and tagged , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

62 Responses to Is there design in nature?

  1. Musa Erasto says:

    Through this article, by Jim Gibson, it has clarified that the Nature truly appears to be designed and that God is the greater Designer. This can be seen through the existence of certain features that could not survive in intermediate stages, on the other hands the Earth differs from the other planets shows that it is really designed by some extraordinary power. This article is real good, and recommendable.

  2. Richard Rusoke says:

    IF YOU DESCRIBE GOD HE CEASES TO BE GOD. WE THANK GOD BECAUSE HE GAVE US A HABITABLE PLANET WITH FAVORABLE FACTORS FOR THE SURVIVAL OF LIVING THINGS AND NONE LIVING THINGS. BECAUSE HE CREATED MATTER, WITH THE DNA TO LIVING THINGS THAT NO MORTAL HUMAN BEING CAN COMPREHEND, HE IS THE ETERNAL DESIGNER OF ALL NATURAL LAWS.

  3. Joseph Lusega says:

    Many Modern scientific insight has revealed startling evidence for intelligent design from various disciplines, from biology to astronomy, from physics to cosmology. But my commend is, the supernatural Designer who created by special intervention creation and not through a continuous process such as evolution. But the argument from perfection as an argument in support of creator, discontinuous with creation, means that when God created the design occur through the law of nature.

  4. MASEREKA B. PAUL says:

    I agree with what Paley claimed, that nature is full of features that show evidence of design. He called them “contrivances,” and compared them to man-made devices or machines, meaning these devices can not happen by chance. Also Gibson has shade more light in advocating for a designer in clarifying some issues. Gibson says, Nature can be properly understood only in the light of God’s special revelation in scriptures. This is real good scientific approach to nature.

  5. Lexson Small John Meseka says:

    In this article, the natural selection has not succeeded. The author concluded that nature is clearly designed by the supernatural designer, as shown in the examples in the article. Therefore, this tells us about the power of God who arranged the systems of nature.

  6. According to Jim Gibson through this article, Nature as portrayed by Paley’s can show to us that God is the designer through His creation acts. Which Darwin and many other Evolutionist were trying to destroy. Though there are so many things which God has created that we cannot see them through nature, and yet God has given us another mean in knowing them through special revelation, where the irreducible lives can be known in their various complexity.

  7. Isacka Ndaruhekeye says:

    The article is so interesting, it gives God what he deserves. The modern scientists including Dr Behe have done a good job in this case. Jim Gibson in conclusion part seems to confuse, he says, “There may be both good and evil designers at work in nature.” Here the devil may be given credit as the designer too, but what we know is that anything in nature that is seen to be designed in evil way is because of the result of sin, sin is the source of all evils in the world due to the curse that was uttered by God.

  8. Okello Robinson Ogwal says:

    When you look at how man made machines function, any intelligent man can conclude those machines are not there by chance. Looking at the complexity of living organism, it of worth to say God designed it. Natural selection can not be the point in the function of living organism organs complexities.

  9. ILUNGA WAZENGA EMILE says:

    About design,our conscious tells us without forcing, when we see the nature, we ask our self the question who created all these creatures? and the response is: there i surely a creator. means God or the designer. and God wants us to discover, to learn , to understand the role which plays a science in our life. sure there i a creator who made what we see in nature as when we see some machines we get the idea that there is one intelligent person who made it.

  10. SULEIMAN NUHU YUSUPH says:

    The reading from this article has given me a positive insights about God how great he is. He is the wonderful and kind GOD to his creatures. how? He has given a habitable place to us; there is a need to give thanks to Him. He is the designer of the planet earth as well as the living organisms in it.

  11. ONESMO MABULA DANIEL says:

    God can not be compared by other designers. He is the creator of the universe. evidence from the article shows that creatures were designed by the mighty designer who is God. praise be unto Him.

  12. Jeliko J. Kasiba says:

    Interesting topic, Nature reveals that there is a a designer who is God Himself. Earth is also created in unique among the planets in solar system, atmospheric composition, this making life possible. wonderful creatures, very systematic, walking majestically its very interesting. This makes me conclude that there is intelligent designer, versus Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

  13. Really, the nature is full of features that show evidence of design. From the structure of micro-organism, to the structure of the whole universe, there is irreducible complexity that testify clearly that there is a supernatural designer who created the whole universe. There is evidence of God in nature (Rom 1:19-20) and all heavens and earth tell glory of God (Psalm 19:1’4).

  14. Benjamin Ngalam says:

    Having read this article by William Paley, I discovered that the nature, the way designed testify that there is a greater designer (creator). According to Paley the creatures can not and never happen by chance. I agree strongly that God through His supernatural power has created by special purpose.Yes we can learn science to discover how God created things and turn glory to the designer without ignore science.

  15. Amos Lutebekela says:

    The author depicts that life on planet earth is possible due to its temperature, moisture, and atmospheric composition which permit life to exist; the condition which do not found in any other known planets. He admits the work of a supernatural Designer, God the Creator.

  16. Paskwale Pacoto Okeny says:

    Darwin’s attempt to destroy Paley’s claims that living organisms are the work of a Designer, still that cannot justify the theory of “natural selection.” The argument based on “irreducible Complexity” support there s a designer. Because the way the earth is with all the living organisms existing, if any features that keeps it running is missing, then life on earth will ceased. all these is because there are intelligently designed by the Creator.

  17. Samson Onyango says:

    SAMSON 0NYANGO.
    First of all we are born in this world in wonderfully complete, we just don’t come from nowhere. I am composition of many deferent organs that must grow to completion before I am born, of which when one organ is missing yes I am human but the term lame comes in that one alone means that I am not complete, therefore Michael Behe of Ohio is right in his argument of “irreducible complexity.”

  18. Godebo Negash Petros says:

    In response of this article, it is possible to recognize that all nature is designed in proper intentional design, and its designer is ONE supernatural God. Even though the evolutionist theory failed to recognize God’s intervention in nature, the beauty of the nature still declare His majestic act upon every nature including habitable earth. I lift up my voice with heavens to glorify God as the great designer!!

  19. Ssenuuni Daniel says:

    According to Gibson in his article, everything God created evidence that He is our great designer, and to human knowledge it remains a mystery because what can be found by man is little to comprehend the whole creation. Though sin corrupted the creation, but still God’s design remain beautiful, sustained, awesome and It is not by continuous process.The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handy-work (Palms 19:1). So, his argument is credible.

  20. Paskwale Pacoto Okeny says:

    Darwin’s attempt to destroy Paley’s claims that living organisms are the work of a Designer, still that cannot justify the theory of “natural selection.” The argument based on “irreducible Complexity” support there is a designer. Because the way the earth is with all the living organisms
    existing, if any features that keeps it running is missing, then life on earth would ceased. The earth and everything in it has been intelligently designed by the Creator.

  21. Robert Young Marcello says:

    Everything has a direct or indirect designer. It seems really very impossible that irreducible complexity and perfect complex interdependency of a system could develop through natural selection. Evil designs seen in nature are by its designer whom God permits, yet for a good purpose according to the word of God – The Bible (Jer. 29: 11; Rom 8: 18-25; Isa 65: 17-19, 25; & 40: 13-14). Chances and necessities may be there, but all is based on an intelligent good design.

  22. Zetti Batista Ndolah says:

    In spite the fact that Darwin and his followers support natural selection theory, there are several evidences which support universal created and existence through intelligent design. These evidences are as follows; Arguments from the Bible, irreducible complex argument which violates Darwin’s hypothesis, and the uniqueness of the earth which favor living creatures than all other planets. All these are evidences which qualifies the intelligent Designer of the universe to be the almighty God.

  23. Kamandi Ferdinand says:

    Paley argue that living organisms are the work of a Designer, God. Darwin argue the theory of natural selection.From the Science we can discover the wonder of nature. But God as an Intellect Designer is who created and sustains all creation.

  24. Really as the author puts it, looking critically at nature, you see an intelligent designer where things couldn’t exist by chance. Looking at the systems of a human being, you surely see an irreducible complexity being. Due to such a critical observation, David had to say; I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made (Psalms 139: 14). Unless one is really stubborn but its a bit obvious that, Behind nature there is an intelligent creator and sustainer.

  25. Paley’s statement according to which the existence in living organisms of features that fonction like mechanical devices to achieve some perpose are evidence they were created by a designer is powerfull. In addition, Gibson reiforces the idea of a designer by the Scripture that shows as to see through the Nature the existence of a Designer. Darwin argument is not in harmony with Scripture and the experience of nature. Order, interaction in nature are eloquent argument in favor of a Designer.

  26. Fromsa Gadisa Mute says:

    I appreciate Michael Behe of Ohio who refuted Darwin’s theory of gradual development of all complex organs by presenting a practical evidence for the intelligent design for nature. This reminds all scientists who supports Darwin’s theory of evolution, to reevaluate their position on the bases of “irreducibility complexity” of some organisms that are intelligently designed by God. Because it is not a philosophy or myths but a scientific approach which no one can denies, but everyone can proof. Praise God It is a new insight for me.

  27. NIYONIZIGIYE EPIMAQUE says:

    Irreducible complexity is a sufficient proof for me of a Supernatural Designer, and this is God the Creator. In fact, everything is arranged in such an intelligent away that a little change in this order is destroying all the structure, showing that there is no intermediate structure. Either, you have the structure as it is designed by God, or you have broken down everything. Let God be God.

  28. Philip M. Ndikumwami says:

    The beauty and order that appear in nature speaks clearly that nature was designed. The design is meant to express about the existence of the great designer who is God Himself. (Rom. 1:19-20). Living organisms exhibit features that have complex independence of parts that kin observers will recognize them as a product of an intelligent designer. The presence of evil in nature does not mean there is no designer either. It simply suggests that there may be both good and evil designers at work in nature.

  29. Olivier Kayitare says:

    The William Paley’ s argument in 1802 is still stronger even to day. The universe appears not only to be designed but to be intelligently to be carefully designed instead of random fluctuations!

  30. Habte Angaw Getahun says:

    The document written by William paley interesting and important argument. I agree that what the writer stated and the designer of the document J.Gibson, concluded. All nature both living and non-living things shows that there is a designer in the back who creates them to operate according to its own inherent principles. The nature does not happen by chance, but there is an intelligent creator in the behind. The other thing is that as there is designer for good and also there is a designer for evil. In conclusion God is the designer of good and He is mighty creator. Every creature testifies this reality.

  31. Daniel Ochar Ndiegi says:

    I strongly agree with the the author of this article that there is a design in nature because of nature’s appearances: Animals,insects,fishes plants birds etc, are in different color height,movement and habit.All these can not happen by chance but proves that there must be a designer of designers.Who is he? GOD,The Creator.Not only physical appearances but even the sexual organs of difference specie and how they function are not the same.

  32. Genemo Geda Turi says:

    I do not agree with Charles Darwin’s idea. To him “God was so far removed from nature that He did not intervene and was not responsible for the state of nature. Instead, nature operated according to its own inherent principles.” For the Bible says, “Thou art near, O Lord; and all thy commandment are truth.” (Ps. 119:151; 145:18; Deut. 4:7) I strongly believe that God is not God of far.

  33. Mulugu Fataki Fidèle says:

    According to what I have read William Poley’s Book written in 1802, I find that there are so many evidences in nature showing the existence of the Deity, God who is the designer of all visible and invisible creatures. Even the Scriptures affirms this evidence. So, nobody has an excuse for denying God’s existence and sovereignty. Personally I believe, Science also can prove it.

  34. Rukundo Isaie says:

    Our God is the greater designer. Although some people deny or ignore Him and His wonders, there are many features proving the existence of a designer even if the sin corrupted them. The nature and the scriptures can teach anyone.

  35. Kilunda itengo says:

    This article shows that, God wants us to discover that, to understand the role which plays a science in the life for everybody. When we look the system of nature directly we understand that God has the power on all thinks. This article recognizes that all natures, all system are designed in proper worldview design, and their designer is one supernatural God who is in heaven.

  36. Ndagijimana Daniel says:

    In the reading, it is clear that God by His providence provided His creatures with the earth, a suitable and favorable place for life. The complex systems in the nature are evidence of a designer, non other than God. We thank Him for sustaining creatures even after sin. His wonders are so complex than anybody can understand unless guided by the Holy Scriptures.

    • Mutimanwa Tchaka Dieudonne says:

      The article shows that the earth reflect the work of a designer and this designer is God. Earth was created by a plan of God and reflect God’s intelligence; this arguments were sustained by thinkers as William Paley, Michael Behe. To understand clearly that the earth is the design of God, we have to come back to Bible and see how Scripture clarify that in nature we find God’s special revelation.

  37. BEATUS GREYSON MLOZI says:

    Although Darwin appear to trigger the thought of the author of the article on the natural selection approach, the scientific and biblical approach emphasized by the author it is enough to say nature is truly intelligent designed. According to Paul “The evidence of God in nature is so clear that no one has excuse for denying His existence and sovereignty”

  38. BANI, JACOB FRUNGUS RANGO says:

    From all these arguments from contrivance, the undisputed product of conscious intelligence and the informational sequence found in DNA and other important bio-molecules suggested clearly that, there is intelligent design behind all these.

  39. Duandro Katchuraki John says:

    This article shows us clearly that the design has a designer as source who is God Himself, Creator of the Earth who provided all things good in the nature for human being. The nature teach us on the supernatural God who is right in his plan. Even if the evolutionist doubt about Him such as Darwin who says that God was so far removed from nature that He did not intervene and was not responsible for the state of the nature is a wake up argument because God was clear to present to human being the problem of evil but human lacked obedience.

  40. Niyonagira Alexis says:

    God is all the time Good. As it is detailed by Gisbon in this article I discover that God increases also the knowledge to found the evidences in nature that proves how He is designer. This article is very important because it shows the proof of existence of the supernatural designer.

  41. Hindi, William Kabi Oliver says:

    The argument was based irreducible complexity It is a sufficient proof to me of supernatural designer who is God. According to Poley the creation of nature does not happen by chance but there was intelligent designer who is God behind the creation.

  42. Muvunyi Charles says:

    William Paley saw that the universe was designed and it had to have a designer. He saw that it was ordered and it had to come out of an orderly mind. The true diagnosis of the human condition stems from that event. God, the creator of the universe, is all good and only good. The goodness of His creation was a reflection of the goodness of His nature. The universe reveals an intelligence of such superiority that it overshadows all human intelligence such as that Charles Darwin.

  43. JAKECH TUKIKO OTIENO says:

    Nothing on this planet earth came into existence by design, even buildings that are contracted there is the designer who does the architectural work, we could not have an organized systems that operate 24/7 without a designer. see Col.1:16 ” for by Him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible ……..”. God is not limited like us that time, space and distance he can be short of but it is our sins that have made him to distant Himself away from us Isiah 59:1.. The dilemma that Dawin talks about where tiny wasps eat the caterpillar this was not the original plan of God but this came after sin has interfered with the original DNA.Otherwise God is still God and the sustain er of life AMEN.

  44. Nelson Olum says:

    After reading the article ” is there design in nature”. I agree with Paley’s claim that existence,order and special properties of the universe clearly states that there is a designer.The universe did not appear by chance but was precisely structured by a supernatural being.In brief supernatural action is the best explanation for the orderliness of the universe.

  45. RUTTOH JOHN says:

    According to J.Gibson ,logic and common sense indicate there is enough evidence in nature to warrant the existence of intelligent designer.Facts or circumstances from which reasonable inference can be drown that an object exist for the purpose of accomplishing something or that elements work together in a part of a control functional pattern.The evidence in living organism ( how cilia works in a cell ) function like mechanical devices. Planet earth differ from other planets in ways that permit life to exist, scientists have presented examples, living organism exhibit features that are complex interdependence of parts, which are real indicators that affirm beyond doubt that God is the intelligent designer.

  46. Msafiri Isaac Mtenzi says:

    The article makes it clear that,nature shows it has the designer. This designer is God. It did not evolve. To sum up,the creation of nature did not happen by chance. God did the job.

  47. Daniel Kimoti says:

    Our inability to imagine a solution to the problem does not mean that the problem has no solution.If Darwinism could fall apart upon demonstation of the exixtence of a complex organ, then the tiny cilium serves the purpose. For sure there is a wonderful intelligent designer of the whole creation!

  48. KIMOTI DANIEL says:

    As Jim Gibson puts it, “Our inability to imagine a solution to the problem does not mean that the problem has no solution.” If Darwinism could fall apart upon demonstration of the existence of a complex organ, then the tiny cilium serves the purpose. For sure there is a wonderful intelligent designer of the whole creation.

  49. HESBON OMUNE says:

    After reading Jim Gibson’s article ,I strongly agree with William Paley’s statement that ‘nature is full of features that show evidence of design. There is an evidence that can not be brushed aside that there was a master designer of the entire universe. In fact, Gibson is right to say that nature can best be understood in the light of God’s Special Revelation in scripture.Darwin’s argument of origin and theory of evolution is baseless and not valid .Paul’s statement in (Roman’s 1:19, 20) has a lot of weight that the evidence of God in Nature is so clear that no one has an excuse for denying His existence and Sovereignty. Let honor and glory be given to God the Creator .

  50. Leonard Tumbu Njoye says:

    To a natural mind, indeed, nature appears to have been designed. Nature’s designer seems to be the greatest of all designers. To a christian mind, whose natural eye works together with a second faith eye which is able to see even the unseen, nature does not just apparently appear, but absolutely declares that it has Him, the most powerful and loving designer–God Almighty. Grateful be O my whole being for you are not a product made and found where you are by chance. May I lift Him up and I praise Him all my days long. May every living creature praise the Lord our Loving Great Designer. Amen.

  51. The article leaves me with the following words in my heart: ” Oh Lord My God when in awesome wonder I consider the worlds that thy hand has made, I can not but say how great thou art”, in line with Paley and the psalmist.Glory and honor be unto His Holy Name!

  52. Paul Mageto says:

    According to this article, it is clear that nature and everything in the universe is clearly designed, even though not all are open to recognize the one behind this design and that is God.Everything in Nature can be properly understood only in the light of God’s special revelation in scriptures. Therefore,we can join with the psalmist in exclaiming, ‘The Heavens and earth and all their host declare the glory of the master designer and that is God.’

  53. Douglas Agoga O says:

    Anyone who disputes the intelligent design, does not believer and will not believe in the designer Himself who is God. The existence of certain features that could not survive in intermediate stages is evidence of a designer. Furthermore, it seems to me to be evidence of a supernatural Designer who created by special intervention — creation — and not through a continuous process such as evolution. I see the argument from perfection as an argument in support of an interventionist, discontinuous creation.

    According to Romans, nature is clearly designed, but not all are open to recognize the Designer. Nature can be properly understood only in the light of God’s special revelation in scriptures. Guided by scriptures, we can join with the psalmist in praise to God:

  54. Evans Mong'are Ooga says:

    when one considers nature carefully, the quick and straight forward answer to the question: is there design in nature? is Yes. with the current revelation of knowledge and the scriptures reveal an intelligent Designer behind nature. In this Darwinism fails and Paley’s claims that behind nature was a designer and not chance are true according to me.

  55. aruya peter ontiri says:

    I will want to concur with the writer that the earth its inhabitant is not by evolution but by an intelligent design. He bases his argument on what he calls “irreducible complexity.” This term refers to a system that is composed of numerous interrelated parts that are so arranged that if any one of them is absent, the system falls apart and has no value whatsoever. And the second fact the existence of certain features that could not survive in intermediate stages is evidence of a designer. And so, I am in agreement of an intelligent designer is our maker the good Lord.

  56. Joseph Mogaka Nyasani says:

    All living organisms, having interdependent parts (organs), proves that they were created by an intelligent designer, which disapproves the theory that God created the earth and left it for a gradual development of organisms from tinny to complex ones through the process of natural selection. No whole organ could be created by random design and be able to coordinate with the rest.

  57. DANIEL MABULLA ONESMO says:

    God can not be compared with scientist He is mighty both in heaven as well on earth.

  58. John ojung'a says:

    God is the perfect designer of all that we can see around.Man can modify his great work according to his limited thinking.

  59. Elizabeth Khonje says:

    According to the reading, scientists accept the evidence of a supernatural Designer. Things really could not have just appeared the way they are. Humanity takes advantage over the creatures and make discoveries.

  60. HESBON OMUNE says:

    After reading Job Gibson’s article ,I strongly agree with William Paley’s statement that ‘nature is full of features that show evidence of design. There is an evidence that can not be brushed aside that there was a master designer of the entire universe. In fact, Gibson is right to say that nature can best be understood in the light of God’s Special Revelation in scripture.Darwin’s argument of origin and theory of evolution is baseless and not valid .Paul’s statement in (Roman’s 1:19, 20) has a lot of weight that the evidence of God in Nature is so clear that no one has an excuse for denying His existence and Sovereignty. Let honor and glory be given to God the Creator .

  61. Regards for helping out, excellent information.

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